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Sex and gender research resources 

Offices and Institutes

* NIH office of research on women's health (ORWH)

* Canadian Institute of Gender and Health (CIHR)

Professional societies and groups

* Organization for the study of sex differences (OSSD)

* American Physiological Society, Sex/Gender Research Interest Group

* Sex and gender women's health collaborative (SGWHC)

* Stanford University Gendered innovations in Science, Health & Medicine, Engineering, and Environment


Bench to Bedside: Integrating Sex and Gender to Improve Human Health Course, by the NIH ORWH

* The Science of Sex & Gender in Human Health, by the NIH ORWH

Sex and Gender Training Modules, by the CIHR

Gender, Sex and Health Research Casebook, by the CIHR

* Sex and Gender Specific Health Learning Modules, by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women’s Health.

*APS Sex/Gender Difference Medical Education Symposium: part 1 - part 2 - part 3 - part 4



* Do you know the sex of your cells? 

* When is a sex difference not a sex difference?

Reporting Sex, Gender, or Both in Clinical Research?

* First steps for integrating sex and gender considerations into basic experimental biomedical research 

* Strategies and Methods for Research on Sex Differences in Brain and Behavior 

* Strategies and Methods to Study Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Structure and Function 

* Why Women's Health Can't Wait - Connors Center Report 

* Consideration of Sex Differences in Medicine to Improve Health Care and Patient Outcomes

* Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit Proceedings 

* Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?  Institute of Medicine report 

* Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use 

Sex Differences in the Brain: The Not So Inconvenient Truth (figures below) 

Useful data

* Human hormone levels - original article with table


* Mouse hormone levels - article with table

Menstrual cycle

Standard Male and Female Hormone Level Ranges

Source: Massachusetts General Hospital, New England Journal of Medicine.  (N Engl J Med 2004;351:1548-63).  These ranges represent normal values for people not receiving any kind of hormone therapy.  Levels achieved during appropriate transgender hormone therapy may or may not match these ranges. Note: the word “menstruating” in the table means, old enough so that menses has begun, but before menopause — it doesn’t necessarily mean during the actual days of monthly flow.


* A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology (D'Mello, 2019)

* Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity (Mauvais-Jarvis, 2017)

* Gender, Sex Hormones and Respiratory Disease (Hemnes, 2016)

* Sex and Gender Differences in Infection and Treatments for Infectious Diseases (Klein, 2015)

* Sex and Gender Differences in Pharmacology (Regitz-Zagrosek, 2012)

* Sex Hormones and Immunity to Infection (Klein, 2010)

* Addressing sex and gender in epidemic-prone infectious diseases (WHO, 2007)

* Respiratory Diseases in Women (Buist and Mapp, 2003)


* Gender Biology: Men and Women Really Are Different

* Science, sex, and gender: transgender and intersex women


Blogs from our lab members

* Ashley Weaver: A summer of asthma research

* Rachel Steckbeck: Sex differences in asthma 

* Nathalie Fuentes: When hormones take your breath away

* Nathalie Fuentes: Why does air pollution affect more women than men?

Press releases featuring our work

* Studying the effects of air pollution on fertility - All4women

* There's Ozone in the Air We Breathe and It's Messing Us Up, Study Warns - Softpedia News

* Ozone air pollution could harm women’s fertility: A Study - Women Fitness

* Air Pollution Affects Women’s Fertility - Press From

* Infertility and air pollution - Affectional Pharmacopeia

* Women’s fertility could be at risk from air-pollution - Mindfood

* Science Says: Ozone Air Pollution Can Harm Female Fertility - Zliving

* Ozone air pollution could harm women's fertility - ScienceDaily

* Ozone air pollution could impact fertility - PSU News


Gender and COVID-19 Working Group (Google group, open to anyone)

Resources list

* NIH LitCovid:

* Gur, R. E., White, L. K., Waller, R., et al. (2020). The Disproportionate Burden of the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Pregnant Black Women. Psychiatry Research, 293, 113475. 

* Pinna, G. (2021). Sex and COVID-19: A Protective Role for Reproductive Steroids. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 32(1), 3–6. 

* Takahashi, T., & Iwasaki, A. (2021). Sex differences in immune responses. Science, 371(6527), 347–348. 

* Diverse Voices: COVID-19, Intersectionality, and the Health of Women | talk | slides

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